nathusius' pipistrelle migration

For Review Only 1 1 Diet of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii during autumn migration and summer 2 residence 3 FraukeKrüger*1, Elizabeth L. Clare²,William O.C. Bibliography. PDF | Bat Species of the Year 2015: Nathusius' pipistrelle. La chauve-souris pipistrelle de Nathusius se livre chaque année à une longue migration: elle quitte ses sites d’estivage situés au nord de l’Europe, notamment dans les pays baltes, et rejoint, en quelques semaines seulement, l’Europe de l’Ouest et du Sud pour y passer l’hiver. 1993-1994), Catalonia (Flaquer et al. Ohlendorf, V.B., Hecht, B., Strassburg, D., and Agirre-Mendi, P.T. Nathusius’ pipistrelle bats have a wingspan that tops out at 25 centimetres, but one managed to make a migratory flight across a continent. Cette espèce migratrice est souvent contactée en fin d'été en Wallonie, durant la migration automnale. degruyter.com uses cookies to store information that enables us to optimize our website and make browsing more comfortable for you. Bat migrations in Europe. La Pipistrelle capture de petits insectes au-dessus des jardins, des étangs, autour des lampadaires et aux abords des habitations. In addition to catching Nathusius Pipistrelle, we have also confirmed the presence of a further 8 bat species, including the brown long-eared which had not been previously recorded at the reserve. Because Nathusius’ pipistrelle is a migratory species, wind turbines have the potential to impact upon bat populations at a range of geographical scales. Both Pape and Pitillas are very important wetlands for bird migration and currently included in the Habitats Directive Sites (SAC) and Bird Directive Sites (SPA). The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. Mating System of a Migratory Bat, Nathusius' Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii): Different Male Strategies. This notion is supported by the observation that banded lesser noctules (Nyctalus leisleri) recaptured in this area originated from Germany and Belgium (Ohlendorf et al. Eur. Alcalde, J.T., Ibáñez, C., Antón, I., and Nyssen, P. (2013). 2015). Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. A male Pipistrellus nathusii ringed in Pape Natural Park (S Latvia) in August 2015 was recovered recently dead in Pitillas’ Lagoon Natural Reserve (N Spain) in March 2017. Not all ship-borne arrivals of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle may have joined ship in continental ports. Myotis 41-42: 69–73. Migration ofPipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius, 1839) was studied from 1995 to 1998 at the Vistula Split, northern Poland. Wind farms during migration of the species, pesticide use and loss of roosts. 2010). Grâce au baguage, on a pu en effet démontrer que certains sujets ont effectué des trajets de plus de 1 500 km entre le nord-est de l’Allemagne et la France. Nathusius's Bat (Anglais) (Chordata, Mammalia, Chiroptera) Pipistrellus kuhlii (Kuhl, 1817) Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber, 1774) Informations générales Longueur (T+C) : 4,6-5,5 cm. Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Tags: Long-distance flight of a Lesser noctule (Nyctalus leisleri) after rehabilitation. At this site common pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and Kuhl’s pipistrelles (Pipistrellus kuhlii) are commonly observed to roost in crevices. Nathusius pipistrelle bat migration. Migration Une pipistrelle de Nathusius baguée le 21 août 1979 en Lituanie a été retrouvée le 12 novembre en Isère : soit mille six cents kilomètres en maximum quatre-vingt-trois jours. The fresh carcass of this bat was found near the visitors’ center of Pitillas’ lagoon. Hutterer, R., Ivanova, T., Meyer-Cords, C., and Rodrigues, L. (2005). Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) is a small migratory bat of usually less than 10 g body mass (6–16 g). For further details see the factsheet of BatLife Europe Wohlgemut, R., Devrient, I., García, A., and Hutterer, R. (2004). Habitat selection in Nathusius’ Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii): the importance of wetlands. This site has been developed by Jon Russ. La Pipistrelle commune recherche des sites de repos, pour se poser régulièrement entre des séquences de chasse. Recovery data of banded bats highlight travel distances of up to 2,000 km and show that Overall, the circumstance that many of these recaptures originate from bat box surveys highlights the usefulness of bat boxes for migrating bats as daytime roosts, especially in wetlands where suitable tree roosts are often lacking. for relevant news, product releases and more. Another one located in the Pyrenees was occupied by a male (Alcalde, unpub. The direction of bat movements during the night were distinguished by two ultrasound detectors facing in opposite directions and connected into a stereo system. Preferred habitats are parkland and light woodland, often near water. The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. 2009). However, the breeding areas of this species are restricted to north-eastern Europe and hibernation areas to south-western, southern and eastern parts of Europe (Hutterer et al. (2000). Depending on the time of year, it can be found at dusk using its sonar to hunt for insects close to estuaries, lakes, rivers and canals across much of continental Europe. A population of Nathusius’ pipistrelles, monitored in bat boxes in the north of the province of North Holland, was used to compare the results. Contribución al conocimiento de la distribución de la fauna quiropterológica de Cataluña. 2004; Alcalde et al. At 2224 km in SSW direction, this is the first documented bat migration between these countries and worldwide the longest migration record of a bat. In general, Nathusius’ pipistrelles follow the coastline of the Baltic countries, which suggests that the individual bat of this study did not migrate between Latvia and Spain in a straight line. Distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros Pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus (Mammalia, Chiroptera) en el País Vasco Occidental. Flaquer, C., Ruiz-Jarillo, R., and Arrizabalaga, A. Nat. It occurs across the UK with a peak in records during the late summer and autumn when many individuals migrate from Eastern to Western Europe. Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Dresden. NA-5330, Pitillas, Navarre, Spain, Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland, Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera str. This species is a long distance migrant and has been recorded (from ringed bats) in England having migrated from as far as Latvia and Lithuania between summer and winter sites. (1990): Les migrations de la pipistrelle de Nathusius, Pipistrellus nath usii, en France. Nathusius’ Pipistrelles may also regularly cross the North Sea as many bats have been found on oilrigs. 17, Berlin, Germany. This specie is 44 to 54 mm long (body and head measurements) and the tail is 30 to 40 mm. Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. Contrary to most other northern bat species which hibernate in below-ground sites, Nathusius’ pipistrelles hibernate in above-ground sites such as buildings or trees. La Noctule et la Pipistrelle de Nathusius se déplacent, par exemple, de la Pologne dans la région du Lac Léman pour passer l'hiver dans des conditions moins dures. The tiny Nathusius' pipistrelle bat was first ringed in Blagdon, near Bristol, and was discovered nearly 600km away in the Netherlands. Pipnat : Pipistrelle de Nathusius, Pippip : Pipistrelle commune (Bas et al., 2020) Depuis les années 2000, les publications scientifiques ont sou-ligné la dangerosité des éoliennes pour les chauves-souris. Only females return to their breeding areas. 11: 149–155, https://doi.org/10.3161/150811009x465767. 000010151520200069, eISSN 1864-1547, ISSN 0025-1461, Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Library and Information Science, Book Studies, https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2020-0069, Hutterer et al. Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration The tiny Nathusius’ Pipistrelle, weighing only 6–10 grams, travels almost 2000 km from its breeding grounds in north-eastern Europe to its main hibernation areas in south-west Europe. For further details see the factsheet of BatLife Europe. Threats. Hutterer, R., Ivanova, T., Meyer-Cords, C., and Rodrigues, L. (2005). La migration de la pipistrelle de Nathusius est ainsi pratiquement le seul moment où mâles et femelles de cette espèce vont se rencontrer. 20 Migration can cause significant changes in behaviour and physiology, due to increasing 21 energy demands and aerodynamic constraints. Envergure : 22-25 cm. Migration Nathusius' pipistrelles have adapted to seasonal climatic changes performing large-scale movements to escape harsh environmental conditions and low levels of food resources. Flaquer, C., Ruiz-Jarillo, R., and Arrizabalaga, A. With this strategy the Nathusius pipistrelle might save energy during migration. 7: 239–242. This observation suggests that this individual flew a minimum distance of 2224 km, from northeast to southwest Europe (Figure 1). Nathusius’ pipistrelle was first recorded in Nottinghamshire in September 2006 on a bat detector during an NBG bat walk at Attenborough Nature Reserve. 2013). Climate change-linked expansion of Nathusius’ pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius 1839). Poids : 6-15,5 g. Dents (34). B r o s s e t, A. animals Alcalde, J.T., Luengo, A., Etxaniz, M., Azpeitia, N., Ruiz De Azua, E., and Martínez, I. 45 recordings contained more than 10 calls. Strelkov, P.P. It is tiny – around the size of your thumb – and weighs just seven or eight grams. espèces migratrices ont été recensées : la Noctule commune, la Noctule de Leisler et la Pipistrelle de Nathusius. The Nathusius' pipistrelle undertakes a seasonal long-distance migration, usually from northeast to southwest Europe, along the coast or river valleys. Sachanowicz, K., Ciechanowski, M., Tryjanowski, P., and Kosicki, Z. Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) is the largest and rarest of the three pipistrelle bat species found in the UK. Populations in Russia are thought to winter in the eastern Caucasus and the Volga Delta. La chauve-souris pipistrelle de Nathusius se livre chaque année à une longue migration: elle quitte ses sites d’estivage situés au nord de l’Europe, notamment dans les pays baltes, et rejoint, en quelques semaines seulement, l’Europe de l’Ouest et du Sud pour y passer l’hiver. Distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros Pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus (Mammalia, Chiroptera) en el País Vasco Occidental. . Sachanowicz, K., Ciechanowski, M., Tryjanowski, P., and Kosicki, Z. J. Wildl. They cross the North Sea at various places during the annual migration to and from the UK. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn. Munibe Cienc. This species is a long distance migrant and has been recorded (from ringed bats) in England having migrated from as far as Latvia and Lithuania between summer and winter sites. During a roost survey conducted between 2016 and 2018 in the provinces of Navarre and Gipuzkoa, six out of 700 boxes contained Nathusius’ pipistrelles in autumn. Wintering range of Pipistrellus nathusii (Chiroptera) in Central Europe: has the species extended to the north-east using heat islands? A number of these species are also found flying over the North Sea, including Nathusius's Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) and the Common Noctule (Nyctalus noctula). The NNPP was launched to improve our understanding of this elusive species by finding out more about it’s migratory routes and resident & breeding status of this bat in the UK. (1999). 3, Salaspils, Latvia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, K. Helmana street 8, Jelgava, Latvia, Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. This project will provide vital information on the migratory origins of Nathusius’ pipistrelles in the UK and allow us to assess the potential threat of wind turbines to bat populations both in the UK and beyond. From collection: Living Planet: Connected Planet, Rapid Response Assessment, Cartographer: Rhinolophe 19: 87–88. In 1997, a breeding roost was found and four maternity roosts are now known in the UK. Seasonal migrations of north-eastern populations of Nathusius’ bat Pipistrellus nathusii (Chiroptera). Before migration the cellular response of the innate immune response was significantly higher than during migration, whereas the humoral response of the same immune branch was dominant during the migration period. The first bat to cross the sea from the UK to Europe has been recorded, according to experts. 2.4 Knowledge of European bat migration is largely based on recoveries of ringed (or ‘banded’) La Pipistrelle de Nathusius (Pipistrellus nathusii) est une espèce de petite chauve-souris vivant en Europe.. Migration. A scientific study several years ago suggested that Nathusius’ pipistrelles are moving their migration trajectories slightly north, but we don’t know this for a fact.” Hermaness Nature Reserve, the Isle of Unst, in the Shetland Islands. 2018; Steffens et al. La migration de la pipistrelle de Nathusius est ainsi pratiquement le seul moment où mâles et femelles de cette espèce vont se rencontrer. 2000; Wohlgemut et al. New nursery colonies have been found in Ireland, the Netherlands, France, and Germany. Avec sa petite taille, son pelage brun foncé (tant sur le ventre que sur le dos), sa peau noire, elle ressemble fort à la pipistrelle commune. The direction of bat movements during the night were distinguished by two ultrasound detectors facing in opposite directions and connected into a stereo system. Ses incidences possibles sur la propaga tion de la rage.- Mammalia 54: 208-212. Dans le cadre de projet de sciences citoyennes à l’échelle nationale, in aice le 3000 Pipistrelles de Nathusius ainsi que d’autres espèces ont été baguées. Rodríguez-Muñoz, R., González-Álvarez, F., Pérez-Barbería, F.J., and Alcalde, J.T. The autumn migration period spans approximately two months. Rodrigues, L., Bach, L., Dubourg-Savage, M.J., Karapandža, B., Kovač, D., Kervyn, T., Dekker, J., Kepel, A., Bach, P., Collins, J., et al.. (2015). Nathusius's Pipistrelle - Pipistrellus nathusii Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Chiroptera Subord 11: 19–38, https://doi.org/10.14709/BarbJ.11.1.2018.04. Leibniz competitive fund (Leibniz-Institut fü r Zoo- undWildtierforschung K101/ 2018) to C.C.V. Typical foraging areas are edge habitats next to woodlands and water bodies. The finding of this bat in early March shows that it most likely hibernated in the Iberian Peninsula, yet we have no information about its arrival at the hibernation site. Myotis 41-42: 29–56. Comment étudier la migration de la Pipistrelle de Nathusius et des Elle aurait donc parcouru 1360km pendant ce laps de temps. Nathusius pipistrelle bat migration. First case of migration of a Leisler’s bat (Nyctalus leisleri) between Spain and Belgium. Wind farms during migration of the species, pesticide use and loss of roosts. Long-distance movement of a Nathusius’ pipistrelle from Pape (Latvia) to Pitillas (Spain). Wintering range of Pipistrellus nathusii (Chiroptera) in Central Europe: has the species extended to the north-east using heat islands? (2018). Alcalde, J.T., Luengo, A., Etxaniz, M., Azpeitia, N., Ruiz De Azua, E., and Martínez, I. (2019). 2019). Corresponding author: Juan Tomás Alcalde, Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física, Spanish Association for Bat Conservation and Research) (SECEMU, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Campus Universitario, Ctra. The extent of bat migration between continental Europe and the United Kingdom (UK) is poorly understood. To obtain information about fluctuations in the relative density of bats in the study area, bird … “The Nathusius pipistrelle responds with a strong humoral immune response to a challenge mimicking a bacterial infection. It is often found at large waterbodies, particularly during its autumn migration period. 40th anniversary Bat Marking Centre Dresden—evaluation of methods and overview of results. 05 … Facts compiled for BatLife Europe. This is the first systematic UK-wide survey for this species. The colour of the pelage is different depending on the season, in the winter time the fur is dark or greyish brown and in the summer time the colour is reddish. (2018). 6. Munibe Cienc. Aihartza, J. and Garin, I. Additionally, this species has been recently observed in other regions of northern Iberian Peninsula, including Asturias, Navarre (Rodríguez-Muñoz et al. Also, we are unaware about where the bat traveled throughout the 567 day period between its ringing and recovery. It is highly migratory with individuals from northern and eastern areas moving south-west for the winter. 18 Migration is widespread among vertebrates, yet bat migration has received little 19 attention and only in the recent decades has a better understanding of it been gained. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn. The late summer migration period spans approximately two months with intermittent stopovers for mating. (1990): Les migrations de la pipistrelle de Nathusius, Pipistrellus nath usii, en France. The aforementioned two bat boxes have been regularly checked with evidence of bats roosting in them between the end of August and the beginning of May. (2002). 2005; Sachanowicz et al. Nyctalus leisleri, Nathusius’ pipistrelle and the parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus4 (Hutterer et al., 2006), with typical migration distances in both spring and autumn thought to be 250 km to 1,000 km. Migration patterns of Nathusius’ pipistrelle are relatively well known in mainland Europe but the movements of bats in and out of the UK and their migration routes and origins are not known. Molleda, R., and Fombellida, I. Et les routes de migrations seront autant “d’autoroutes de l’amour” où les femelles pipistrelles s’accoupleront tout au long de leur voyage vers le Sud. We also report other observations of this species in autumn in Northern Spain, suggesting that the Iberian Peninsula may be an important wintering area for Nathusius’ pipistrelles. Ecological Network Three bat-boxes located in Peralta, less than 20 km from Pitillas lagoon, were occupied by four males of this species. Recently, the breeding range of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle has expanded towards the west and the south. The aims of the National Nathusius’ Pipistrelle Project are to determine the migratory origins of this species in Great Britain and the breeding status of resident populations. So far, this is the longest documented movement of a banded bat in the World and the only one that exceeds 2000 km. Between 2014 and 2018, a second intensive campaign of banding Nathusius’ pipistrelles was carried out at the Ornithological Station Pape, to elucidate if migratory patterns changed in response to global climate change. Conserv. N-II, km 33,6, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain, E-mail: © 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration, Living Planet: Connected Planet, Rapid Response Assessment. Migration Nathusius' pipistrelles have adapted to seasonal climatic changes performing large-scale movements to escape harsh environmental conditions and low levels of food resources. Wildlife and renewable energy: German politics cross migratory bats. Nathusius’ Pipistrelle Bat hunts at the edges of forests, over waterways and around street lamps. Wildlife and renewable energy: German politics cross migratory bats. Molleda, R., and Fombellida, I. Pipistrelle de Nathusius. Populations in Russia are thought to winter in the eastern Caucasus and the Volga Delta. Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Dresden. To elucidate the connectivity between wintering and summer areas, a large banding campaign of Nathusius’ pipistrelles was carried out between 1985 and 1992 at the Ornithological Station Pape, located on the south-western coastline of Latvia. 6: 213–219, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0903-y. Conservation measures should be agreed on by countries along the migration routes to improve the protection of this species. It is generally commoner in Central and Eastern Europe. (2004). Nathusius’ Pipistrelle is protected under the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats (EUROBATS). Nathusius' pipistrelle occurs from Western Europe eastward as far as the Ural Mountains, Turkey and the Caucasus. Presencia regular del murciélago de Nathusius, Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) en la costa cantábrica. Sander Lagerveld reported a Nathusius’ Pipistrelle alighting on a boat in the North Sea 100 km north of … Long-distance flight of a Lesser noctule (Nyctalus leisleri) after rehabilitation. Also, over the past years, the species has been regularly observed in the north of Spain, but it has never been observed to breed in the Iberian Peninsula. Pētersons, G. (2004). If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here. Habitat ; Espèce anthropophile, elle vit principalement dans les villages et les grandes villes, mais est aussi présente dans les parcs, les jardins, les bois, les forêts. Espèce jumelle : Pipistrelle pygmée (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) qui se différencie de la Pipistrelle commune uniquement par ses ultra-sons. Nathusius' pipistrelles were originally thought to be vagrants in the U.K. but are now known to be seasonal migrants. Recently, it has been suggested that some Nathusius' pipistrelle populations may remain resident in the U.K. throughout the years (Russ et al., 1998). Guidelines for consideration of bats in wind farm projects – Revision 2014. These movements also underpin the problem that wind farms can pose for long distance migrating bats; especially for Nathusius’ pipistrelles, which is one of the species with the highest collision risk at wind turbines in Europe (Rodrigues et al. Presencia regular del murciélago de Nathusius, Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) en la costa cantábrica. It is currently on hold while we explore new sources of … Et les routes de migrations seront autant « d’autoroutes de l’amour » où les femelles pipistrelles s’accoupleront tout au long de leur voyage vers le Sud. Threats. (2000). C’est la plus grande des Pipistrelles. Unfortunately it had died but its identification ring could solve a migration mystery. Nathusius’ pipistrelle was first recorded in Britain in 1940, as a vagrant, but its status was upgraded to winter visiting migrant as records accumulated. Contribución al conocimiento de la distribución de la fauna quiropterológica de Cataluña. Credit: Alamy . Alcalde, J.T., Ibáñez, C., Antón, I., and Nyssen, P. (2013). 67: 123–132, https://doi.org/10.21630/mcn.2019.67.09. As a result, and based on the fact that the abundance of aerial insects is low in the breeding range during winter, Nathusius’ pipistrelles perform long-distance flights with a dominant north-east to southwest direction. (2019). Migration ofPipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius, 1839) was studied from 1995 to 1998 at the Vistula Split, northern Poland. Bats also use this route. BSG Ecology has been conducting studies looking at whether there is evidence of bat migration into and out of the country since early 2012. 37: 2232–2242, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02384.x. Bat Res. Risque de confusion : Pipistrelle de Nathusius, Pipistrelle de Savi. (2004). Nathusius’ pipistrelle is one of Britain’s 17 breeding bat species. Nathusius’ pipistrelle is a priority species under the EUROBATS Agreement and we welcome more research into its distribution in the UK. Recently, the breeding range of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle has expanded towards the west and the south. IUCN status: Least concem. Its distribution covers major parts of Europe, from Fennoscandia and British Isles in the north to the Mediterranean areas in the south. ), a typical hunting habitat for Nathusius’ pipistrelles in the Mediterranean region (Flaquer et al. Lastly, a male was found dead under a wind turbine close to Punta Lucero (Biscay, Cantabrian coast) in October 2017 (Alcalde et al. Nathusius’ Pipistrelle Bat hunts at the edges of forests, over waterways and around street lamps. 2015). Strelkov, P.P. The first bat to cross the sea from the UK to Europe has been recorded, according to experts. (1993-1994). (2018). Climate change-linked expansion of Nathusius’ pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius 1839). Here we report the recovery of a male Nathusius’ pipistrelle that was ringed in Pape Natural Park (56°9′ 53″ N, 21°1′ 2″ E) on 21st August 2015 and recovered in Pitillas’ Lagoon Natural Reserve, Navarra, N Spain (42°24′ 30″ N, 1° 35′ 36″ W) on 12th March 2017. A total of 151 recordings of call sequences of Pipistrellus nathusii (Nathusius' pipistrelle) were made during 20 nights over an entire autumn migration season (8 August – 30 November 2017). Recapture data demonstrated that Nathusius’ pipistrelles may travel up to 1905 km between Pape and potential wintering sites, indicating that Central European (Germany and Poland) and northeastern populations (Fennoscandia, the Baltic countries, Belarus, and Russia) leave breeding grounds to move in a west to southwest direction for wintering in the Benelux countries, France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and Croatia (Pētersons 2004). Trap located at the edges of forests, over waterways and around lamps. 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